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The last class is full of festive atmosphere since Christmas is coming soon. And also because everyone is so looking forward to finishing the shoes and putting them on! We completed lasting in the last lesson, so this time we unplug all the tacks and spread the cork on.  The cork looks so like mustard, even the way of spreading it feels like it! The picture below is Sovej’s shoe, filled with cork:

最後一節課,教室里幾乎充滿喜慶氣氛了。一方面是由於聖誕和新年的臨近,另一方面當然是因為大家都無比期待新鞋的完工啦。上節課我們把鞋面上好了,接下來就是把釘子全部拔掉,往鞋底中間填上軟木塞碎cork。逐個東西是一罐一罐賣的,產品本身就已經自帶有粘性,所以只要象抹黃油那樣往鞋的空隙中抹就好。如果不填這個東西,可以想像鞋底中間會凹進去一塊,不平整走起路來當然也舒服不到哪兒去。下圖是丹麥的Sovej同學填好了的軟木塞:

cork filled

Let’s have a look at every student’s work so far! Below is Dom’s shoe:

讓我們來逐個看一下每個同學的鞋子做完這一步的樣子吧!下面這個是Dom的:

Dominique's shoe without heel and sole

This shoe with leopard patch is made by Terri:

下面這個是Terri同學的熱情豹紋鞋:

Terri's shoe without heel and sole

This one below is Sovej’s turquoise fish skin shoe, which has been shown to you for quite a few times:

下面這隻大家見過很多次啦,就是Sovej同學的藍色魚皮設計:

Sovej‘s shoe without heel and sole

This patchwork shoe is made by Sovej’s sister Angete, (yes, sisters come to class together!) and the lace for the shoe is not final, just put there temporarily for lasting:

下面這個是Sovej同學的姐姐Agnete(沒錯,她們是兩姐妹一起來上課)的設計,一般人們把這一類東一塊西一塊的不規則貼布型設計叫做patchwork,真是雙很特別的鞋子呢。鞋帶她還沒有找到合適的,所以這根白色繩子暫且代用:

Agnete’s shoe without heel and sole

(*ahem*) So the next step is to glue the heels and soles together, and then glue it onto the shoe.  After that the shoe can be taken off from the last (finally!), and only one last step to do: glue the socks. We can choose whatever material we like to make the socks. Dom has chosen the same fabric as her shoe upper, while I have chosen pig skin.  Before putting the sock in, we need to hammer a few long nails into the heels, and put two seat pads in to make the shoes comfortable.  The seat pads are like soft sponges, which are included in the shoemaking kit sold by Prescott & Mackay.

The shoes are finally completed once we cut off the extra lining material!

咳咳…大家的鞋都看了一遍,下面就該把鞋底sole和鞋跟heel粘起來,再整個粘合到鞋子上。做完這一步,鞋子就可以從鞋楦上取下來了。取下的鞋子只缺一個零件:鞋內墊。大家可以自由決定用什麽樣的材料做鞋墊,象Dom就用了與鞋主體同色的印花布,我個人覺得能夠保證吸濕排汗最重要,因此用的仍然是與鞋裡同色的豬皮。在粘鞋墊之前,先要在鞋後跟敲入長的鞋釘以固定鞋跟,還要在上面覆蓋上一層軟乎乎的海綿狀物,叫做seat pads。

完成以上所有步驟以後,小心地沿邊緣把多餘的鞋裡皮料切割掉,鞋子們就全部完成了!

Here comes Terri’s leopard shoes!
下面是Terri和她的豹紋鞋:)

Terri and her completed shoes!

And this is happy Dominique and her fabric/leather shoes!
下面是開心的Domnique和她的民族風印花布撞牛皮鞋!

Dominique and her completed shoes!

These are, of course, the sisters and their shoes! A lot of design efforts were put in…
下面當然是丹麥姐妹倆和她們的特別複雜的鞋子啦:

the sisters trying their shoes on

Angete's completed shoes

Sovej's completed shoes

The last of the last, my shoes…Sorry I have to give them a few more shots! :p
最後的最後,當然是我自己的鞋啦…給它多幾個特寫,不好意思嚕*_*

Florrie's completed shoes

my shoe: a view from the side

my shoe: in detail

They are so comfortable when I try them on.  I have to find a very special occasion to wear them! 😀
試在腳上,別提有多舒服了:D。頗有點捨不得穿呢!

Read more:
Making shoes in the evening – week 1 to 4
Making shoes in the evening – week 5 to 7
Making shoes in the evening – week 8 to 9
Link to the school: Prescott & Mackay shoemaking class

Diary for the Prescott & Mackay Shoemaking Evening Class

Anyone still remembers the yellow thing I showed in the first class’ diary? Well its name is shoe last, and we are going to ‘last’ the shoe in two classes. I nail the prepared insole onto the shoe last first,  put my chosen leather thong through the marked holes on the shoe, and then wrap it around the last:

还记得第一节课见到过的黄色鞋楦吧?这两周的内容就是把皮上楦。第一步要做的是把一块鞋中底用几个钉子固定在鞋楦底下,然后把我们上节课做好的面和里按照之前做的标记打好洞,穿入我预先挑选好的皮绳leather thong(我可喜欢这款皮绳的颜色啦),往鞋楦上一套:

leather thong tied, before lasting

Then we start lasting the lining first. Nails are put onto the leather bit by bit to fix it in place.
然后终于开始lasting了!顺序仍然是先面再里,用鞋钉一点一点固定几个基本点,然后逐步增加钉子:

lasting the lining: preparations

After making sure the position of the lining is completely alright, I apply glue between the lining and the insole and stick them together, then remove the nails – it looks like the picture below. How neat! (I couldn’t help being proud for a second…) If anybody wants to know what the white edge along the lining is, it’s called toe puff, which is also lasted onto the shoe, and it can help to keep the shoe in shape. There is the other one on the back of the shoe!

完全定位后,上粘胶,粘合,拔除所有的钉子,切割掉多余的重叠皮料,就成了下图这样,多么整齐呀!(自豪一下:p)有人也许要问鞋头包着里料边缘的白色部分是什么?那就是能够防止鞋头变形的前趾垫toe puff,不仅前面有,后跟也有一块哦。这也是全鞋和拖鞋的区别所在。这个东西也是要象lasting那样上上去的,所以也颇费了一番功夫呢。

lasted lining and toe puff

It’s the turn of the upper. Lasting is so important because it directly influences the comfort and beauty of the shoe – if you pull the leather too tight you may break the stitches or make bumps between the lining and the upper; if you pull it too loosely there will be wrinkles on the shoe.

鞋里这样就上好了。然后该轮到鞋面了。如果钉钉子时扯得太紧,有可能把鞋面扯破,并有可能导致面和里的松紧度不一而中间起褶皱;如果扯得太松更不可取,因为鞋面是否光滑无痕完全取决于拉扯皮料的力度,这就是为什么lasting的步骤那么重要了——它直接影响到鞋面是否美观和穿着是否舒适呢。

shoe upper: before lasting

Keep nailing and hammering….

然后就是一再重复的挥舞锤子和钉子的过程咯。

lasting the shoe upper

Does anyone still remember the blue printed fabric that my classmate Dominique used for her shoes? Let’s have a look at her nearly finished upper lasting…
让我们来看看Dom同学已经基本上好了的鞋面…还记得她的蓝印花棉布么?

Dominique's shoe: the upper is lasted

Well, everyone’s shoes look much much closer to their final designs! I look forward to the next class, which is our last class in this evening course! Getting too excited…

总而言之,鞋子已经越来越接近完成的样子啦!下一节课就将是本次晚间课程的最后一节了,让我们一起期待完工的美鞋吧!

Read more:
Making shoes in the evening – week 1 to 4
Making shoes in the evening – week 5 to 7
Making shoes in the evening – week 10

Where was I? Oh yes, I have finished making the pattern of my shoes and started to cut the materials. The picture below is the cut leather: the cherry blossom pinky white ostrich for shoe upper, and the fire orange ostrich for the heels.

上次我在“设计师之路:全手工英式皮鞋制作日记”里說到鞋的紙樣已經做好,開始切割皮料了。下面就是已經切好的皮子,米色帶珊瑚紅點(其實整體看來是淡淡的櫻花粉色)的鴕鳥皮是鞋面,火橘色的鴕鳥皮是鞋跟。

leather for shoe upper and heels

The next step is to sew all the upper pieces together. Some leather is very thick, my ostrich for example, so we need to thin the edge of the leather to make the overlapped part the same thickness as a single layer. The technical term is SKIVING.  Traditionally people use special knives to operate by hand, but most of mordern designers use skiving machines. Please note that only thick leather needs this process. Leather as thin as the pig skin for the shoe lining will have little left if you skive it… 设计师之路:全手工英式皮鞋制作日记二The picture below is the skived leather at the edge:

料子都裁好以後,下一步就是縫紉:將所有屬於鞋面的皮料統一為一個整體。我的鞋面只有兩片皮,所以第一步只要作一道直線縫合,但只爲這個,還有一個特殊的準備工作要做:削薄皮料,術語是skiving。這一步是皮具製作的基本而重要的技巧之一,把皮料反面的組織部分削去一定厚度,即方便縫紉,更主要是連結后的皮料不至於厚得難以操作。這個步驟可以用專用刀具手工削,但大多數現代設計師都會用專門的切削機器,即skiving machine。厚的皮料才需要做這個,太薄的料,如作鞋裡的豬皮,已經只有一兩毫米薄,再削就沒有了。设计师之路:全手工英式皮鞋制作日记二削好的皮料反面是這樣:

skived upper leather

So I sewed this two pieces together, using the industrial sewing machine in the studio, particularly designed for shoes.

接下來要用專門的工業制鞋縫紉機Industrial sewing machine來車縫。我想我可能真的是個天才吧?设计师之路:全手工英式皮鞋制作日记二只是小時候和媽媽玩過幾次家用縫紉機而已,這個是一次就搞定了。老師也很驚訝呢!

sewed shoe upper

 In order to sew the upper and lining together, my upper should be folded flat and nice to show a clear line, with the help of neoprene adhisive. Before actually folding the leather a nylon string is put on the reverse side to keep the shoe in shape, because nylon is not stretchable. Hammer the leather down and turn it over, the shoe upper looks neat! 

然後到比較困難的部分了。鞋面的外部線條是隨時都能被看到的,所以當然要小心處理。在縫合之前要先用專用的氯丁橡膠粘劑Neoprene adhesive粘合邊緣子口,同時又要加入細尼龍帶以保證鞋面不會輕易變形。要知道鞋子可是承受全身重量的物體,走起路來鞋面是處在不停被拉扯的狀態中,所以尼龍怎么扯也不變形的特性在這裡就幫了大忙。放入尼龍帶并粘好子口,反過來就成了這樣:

 
 

glue the nylon string onto the leather

 

flatten it and turn it over

My lining has been cut according to the pattern as well. The most popular material for shoe lining in the industry is pig skin, because its characteristics (hard wearing, lightweight, and soft) are ideal for this purpose. You can see my sewed lining and upper in the picture below:  

做鞋裡首選用豬皮。豬皮的手感特別柔軟,而且透氣性好又耐磨。同樣,根據紙樣把豬皮切好,縫合。下圖中,上面是鞋裡,下面是鞋面。 



sewed lining and upper

Finally I can sew my upper and lining together! The sewing process takes me a long time because I have to make sure the line is neat and very close to the edge. Different from fabric, leather doesn’t allow mistakes because every stitch will leave a hole on it. If you unpick the thread and stitch the same place again and again, it may break… Look at mine, aren’t they nice? ;)

既然面和里都做好了,下面就該把它們車縫在一起了。依照之前做好的種種標記,沿這鞋面邊緣小心地縫紉,線與邊緣僅有1-2毫米左右的距離。皮料不同于布料,車錯還能拆掉重來,因為針會在皮子上留下明顯的洞眼,如果不停出錯反復車縫同一個地方,皮是很容易斷掉的。所以這裡真是要分外小心。好在我完成得還不錯。设计师之路:全手工英式皮鞋制作日记二



upper and lining sewed together

The next class I’ll start lasting the shoes! Lasting is the most important process and technique in shoemaking, as the material will be wrapped around the shoe last and nailed in shape. I so look forward to the class next week…

Well, let’s also have a look at other classmates’ work. The cut pieces below are done by Dominique. I love the pattern of the blue fabric very much!

下節課就要進行制鞋最重要的環節:lasting了。這一步不知怎么翻譯,因為做鞋做鞋,說來說去精華部分就在lasting,要把鞋料套在鞋楦上,用釘子固定并造型。所以是最難也最有趣的部分。
好,到這裡暫停一下,來看看其他同學的進度。设计师之路:全手工英式皮鞋制作日记二

下面是Dom同學裁好的面料。棕色的牛皮和蠟染印花般的棉布,這個設計我喜歡!



shoe pieces by Dominique

Read more:
Making shoes in the evening – week 1 to 4
Making shoes in the evening – week 8 to 9
Making shoes in the evening – week 10

A pair of good shoes, like a good partner, is magic. Everyone has his/her own definition of what is ‘good’, and mine is a well combination of comfort and appearance. Good shoes support your whole body weight without any complaint, walk with you as far as they can and never make you feel tired, while at the same time get you envy eyes from people.  It’s not easier to find shoes like that than finding a right partner. Some people may have never found THE right shoe in a life time.

一雙好鞋就像一個好伴侶,作用很是神奇。對什麽是“好”,各人有各人的定義。無論是你要選擇“買”一雙好鞋,還是“做”一雙好鞋(象我這樣),面對眾多選擇你都不得不排個優先次序。對我來說第一最最重要的是舒服,其次是外表,然後才是可持續性啦場合啦等等等等。又舒服又漂亮的鞋子踏踏實實地支撐著整個人體的重量,陪你走很遠很遠的路也不會覺得累,而且還能邊走邊得到讚賞的眼光。只是找到這樣的鞋的難度不亞於找一個最合適的伴侶,有的人也許一輩子都沒有找到過一雙真正適合自己的好鞋呢。

I’m lucky that I can learn the crafts of shoemaking in London. I’ll start to post what I’ve learnt in the evening shoemaking class at Prescott & Mackay here. If you also want to learn about the crafting skills of handmade shoes, follow my shoe diaries from today!  

我很幸運,能在伦敦学习传统的英国手工制鞋技艺。從這周開始我會把自己在Prescott & Mackay上晚間課程的學習心得記錄在這裡。如果你也想知道一雙純手工皮鞋是怎麼製作出來的,就來看我的制鞋日記吧!

The course started from the beginning of September. I always appreciate the small class size of P&M – five students altogether. In the first week (the first night) we were taught by Melissa (the principal of the school) and Morven (a young shoe designer and shoe maker). Don’t be misjudged by Morven’s young look – she makes shoes for those wax figures in Madame Tussauds London. Have you seen the yellow objects in the picture below?  LAST is the name – they are the most important equipments for shoemaking because most operations are based on them. Your shoe will look basically in the same shape as your last. Melissa (pictured) explained to us how to match the height of heels with a last – a key factor for the comfort of a shoe. Can you tell from the picture that the height of the last and heel doesn’t match?

P&M學校總是小班上課以保證教學質量,第一周我見到了一起上這個課程的另外四個學生,來自各個行業,有出版編輯,有建築師。第一周校長梅麗莎親自給我們上課,另一位老師Moven很年輕,可別看人家年紀小,倫敦的杜莎夫人蠟像館里的那些名人蠟像們穿的手工皮鞋可都是她做的。看到下面黃色的東西了嗎?它們叫做last—鞋楦,為標準人腳尺寸,一切操作基本上都基於它,鞋楦是什麽形狀,做出來的鞋基本就是那個形狀,因此是做鞋最重要的工具之一。梅麗莎給我們講解鞋跟高度與鞋楦的搭配,原來這就是決定一雙鞋是否舒服的重要因素之一。你能看出图中示范的鞋楦其实与鞋跟高度并不搭配吗?

Match your heel with your last

Match your heel with your last!

We all chose our preferred last shape, and the next step will be making shoe design and patterns. Making patterns has a very interesting preparation step: taping the last. Taping tightly against the last and the angle of putting tapes are significant to the correctness of shoe pattern, so make sure you pay enough attention to it. I gave this step a genius nickname: mummifying a last. 🙂

我们纷纷根据各人喜好选择了自己喜欢的鞋型,接下來我們要做鞋的設計紙樣了。做紙樣有一個很有趣的準備過程——給鞋楦貼膠帶。膠帶貼得好不好和紙樣的準確性可是關係很大的哦,所以可不要小看了。我把這一步笑稱為“鞋楦的木乃伊化”。下边是我近乎完成的木乃伊……:)

half-finished taping for the last

half-finished taping for the last

Week 2 was about the design. I’ve been expecting this course for quite a while and have already drawn my design in my mind for many times. Look at my design, can you imagine how the real shoe will look like? 😉

第二堂課的內容就是設計鞋款了。我因為期待這課程很久了,早就在腦海中勾畫出了自己喜歡的圖樣,因此往木乃伊上畫設計圖的時候分外地快。看看我的設計,想像得出完成后是什麽樣子嗎?;)

my shoe design drawn on the tape

my shoe design drawn on the tape

When the design was finished, we cut the tape and carefully tore it off, then stick it onto pattern paper. The first version of the pattern was done!
設計完成以後,把木乃伊裹布按中線小心切割,撕下貼在紙樣專用紙上,就成了最基本的鞋樣咯!

the pre-pattern of my shoe design

the pre-pattern of my shoe design

Here came the second step: transforming the basic pattern to the Mean Forme. You will see only one piece of it but it actually relects both sides of a shoe: the inside and the outside. It took a lot of time to make the mean forme, but it will serve as the most correct reference whenever you want to trace your design back. So if we want to add tolerance or do any modifications, we need to make the third version of pattern. The picture below is my mean forme!
做完基本鞋樣,就要把它轉換為紙樣的“參照版”,用同一片紙板反映一隻鞋的內外兩面,術語是mean forme。做這個很耗精力,一旦修改了想改回去可不容易,因此做好了還不能輕易在上邊切割或者寫寫畫畫,而是要再度轉換、加子口變成紙樣的第三版。下圖即我的mean forme,各項指標都非常精細。我得到老師的讚揚,因為我做的鞋內面和鞋外面在接合處相差極小,即說明在之前的木乃伊操作中線條和切割都非常準確。

mean forme

mean forme

It didn’t end at the 3rd version though. A fourth effort was made in week 3 to make the real shoe pattern, reflecting the real look of the upper of a shoe, and transforming the one piece pattern back to two pieces: one for the outside and the other for the inside.  Of course there are other considerations that I won’t use too many words to talk about here. You can see my finished upper pattern below: what an effort!
第三版紙樣做好以後,還要做最後的一次轉換——真實反映一個鞋面該有的樣子,把用一片紙板表現的鞋內外兩面再度還原為兩片(內一片,外一片)。當然還有很多其他的考量,這裡就不多說了。下面就是我終於做完了的第四次轉換:當當當!我的設計紙樣出爐了!

my finished shoe upper pattern

my finished shoe upper pattern

————————————————————————————————————————-
So far we have done 3/4 of the pattern making. Where is that 1/4? That’s what I have done this week ( week 4). A pair of shoes not only needs shoe upper, but also shoe lining! So we need to make the pattern for the lining here. According to different designs, the lining can look very similar to the upper, or not alike at all. The simpler the design is, the more the lining resembles the upper.  Check my lining patter below, can you tell the difference from the upper?
紙樣到這一步算是完成了大半。為啥不是全部完成了呢?因為一雙鞋不僅有鞋面,還有鞋里子呢!鞋里的形狀根據具體情況的不同,可以和鞋面形狀很相似,也可以完全不像。越簡單的鞋子,鞋里和鞋面越相像。下面象小房子的那个是鞋跟纸样,旁边是我的鞋裡紙樣。你能看出和鞋面纸样哪裡不同嗎?

my finished lining pattern and heel pattern

my finished lining pattern and heel pattern

Now the pattern is finished,  I can start to cut my leather! The leather I chose is cream ostrich with coral pore as the upper, and orange ostrich as the heel. Leather has directions and defects, so make sure you mark your pattern on the leather carefully before putting your knife on it. 
做完紙樣,確認沒有錯誤了,就可以裁咯!我選擇的材料是米色配珊瑚紅點的鴕鳥皮為主調,火橘色的鴕鳥皮為鞋跟。真皮是有方向性的,紙樣必須按某一方向排,而且天然的皮料難免有瑕疵。想像如果你做一個包包,皮子面積那麼大一塊,如果想要最後成品是完全沒有瑕疵的,那該是多么的費料啊!這也是好皮具價格高的原因之一。我的鴕鳥皮質量不錯,有少許污漬,都被我小心地避開了。

I am cutting my ostrich leather

I am cutting my ostrich leather

Let’s check the other students’ progress. The picture below is from my Danish classmate. Very complicated design, thus more difficult to make the pattern.
以上就是四個晚上完成的活計咯。看看別的同學的進度吧:下圖是坐我旁邊的一個丹麥同學的設計,非常複雜,因此做紙樣也比我的款式難得多,速度也慢一些。

Sovaj's shoe pattern

Sovaj's shoe pattern

These are what she’s going to use for her upper and heel. The turquoise material is fish skin which she brought from Denmark. The dark blue is very soft lamb skin. Very beautiful colour match – I can imagine how pretty the finish shoes would be!
這是她準備用來做鞋跟和鞋面的皮料。土耳其藍的顏色是魚皮,她專門從丹麥帶回來的;深藍色是非常柔軟的小羊皮。顏色配得很漂亮,可以想像完成以後一定很驚豔!

fish skin and blue leather

fish skin and blue leather

See you next week! 那麼,就下周再見啦。^^

Read more:
Makeing shoes in the evening – week 5 to 7
Making shoes in the evening – week 8-9
Making shoes in the evening – week 10